In this study, potential relationships between fluctuating bioclimatic factors and crop species occurrences in Turkey were analyzed within the context of climate change through years. Occurrence data of major crop species were extracted from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) that is the largest biodiversity database worldwide. After a preliminary examination and removal of erroneous records, a total of 25,652 occurrences in Turkey were analyzed. Plant samples identified at the species level and recorded more than 100 times were selected. In the final version of the dataset comprised of 22 species belonging to five genera (Aegilops, Avena, Hordeum, Secale, and Triticum) in the family Poaceae throughout Turkey. Later, four key bioclimatic factors including frost day frequency (days), potential evapotranspiration (mm per day), precipitation (mm per month), and daily mean temperature (°C) were selected. Extracted values of these bioclimatic factors in species localities between 1970 and 2019 were analyzed using the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) high-resolution raster files on QGIS software version 3.8. Recent climate change effects were apparent in all factors. Since the 70s, frost day frequency in the localities of crops has decreased by 11% in the last decade. Moreover, mean temperature and precipitation has increased by 1.3°C (11%) and 2.8 mm per month (6%), respectively. Potential evapotranspiration has also slightly increased by 5%. The results of this study can contribute to species distribution models analyzing how crop species in Turkey can be affected by climate change and how the effects of changing climatic conditions can be mitigated in the future.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Climate Change, Geographic Data, Species Occurrence, Poaceae