Many factors such as changing world conditions, population growth, new pathogenic microorganisms and the reduction of agricultural land comes with the demand for healthy food needs. In addition, breeding activities have been focused on increasing productivity especially in livestock. Disease resistance and adaptation abilities of native breeds make them more important on genetic improvement studies. Biotechnological methods have been utilized for improvement studies. The most prominent of these studies are in the field of genetics. That is used for the improvement and determination of yield characteristics of native breeds. Genetic studies at the molecular level have addressed specific points and focused on the desired trait to be developed within the scope of breeding. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and STR (Short Tandem Repeat) methods were used for the improvement and determination of yield characteristics of native breeds. Gene polymorphism studies are examining genetic differences and relationships among genes. STR Marker researches focus on, relationship with gene relatedness of a specific trait. Thus, STR allows the compatibility of the populations with geographical areas, genetic characterization and suitability for identification studies are investigated. As a result, both gene polymorphism and STR Marker studies have shown the importance of the use of biotechnology in animal breeding. This review focuses on the genetic studies with using PCR and STR Marker methods in Turkish native cattle breeds; Yerli Kara (Native Black, NB), Boz Irk (Grey cattle), Güney Anadolu Kırmızısı (South Anatolian Red, SAR), Doğu Anadolu Kırmızısı (East Anatolian Red, EAR), Yerli Güney Sarısı(Native South Yellow, NSY) and Zavot.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Native cattle, Improvement, Genetic, STR Marker, PCR